Sulphur – occurrence and extraction, properties and
reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid –preparation,
properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate.
Halogens- occurrence, preparation, properties,
hydrogen halides, uses of halogens.
Noble gases- discovery, occurrence and isolation,
physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and
Unit 14 : Chemistry of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium- occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses. Important compounds-NaCl,
Na2CO3,NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI,KOH.
Magnesium and calcium-occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses. Important compounds Mgcl2,
MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2,CaCO3, CaSO4, Plaster
of paris, Bleaching Powder.
Aluminium –occurrence, extraction properties and
uses, compounds-AlCI3, alums.
Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium
Unit 15 :- Heavy Metals
Iron – Occurrence and extraction, compounds of
iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and
Copper and Silver- occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses, compounds-sulphides, halides
and sulphates, photography.
Zinc and Mercury- occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses, compounds-oxides, halides;
sulphides and sulphates.
Tin and Lead- occurrence and extraction, properties
and uses, compounds-oxides, sulphides, halides.
Unit 16: Chemistry of Representative
Periodic properties- Trends in groups and periods
(a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c)
Carbonates and sulphates-solubility.
The chemistry of s and p block elements,
electronics configuration, general characteristic
properties and oxidation states of the following:-
Group 1 elements - Alkali metals
Group 2 elements - Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements - Boron family
Group 14 elements - Carbon family
Group 15 elements - Nitrogen family
Group 16 elements - Oxygen family
Group 17 elements - Halogen family
Group 18 elements - Noble gases & Hydrogen
Unit 17 : Transition Metals Including
Electronic configuration : General characteristic
properties, oxidation states of transition metals.
First row transition metals and general properties of
their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides.
General properties of a second and third row
transition elements ( Groupwise discussion).
Preparation and reactions, properties and uses of
Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate.
Inner Transition Elements: General discussion with
special reference to oxidation states and lanthanide
Unit 18 : Coordination Chemistry and Organo
Coordination compounds, Nomenclature:
Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in
coordination compounds, Werner’s coordination
theory. Applications of coordination compounds.
Unit 19 : Nuclear Chemistry
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances.
Nuclear reactions; Radio-active disintegration
series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear
fission and Nuclear fusion: Isotopes and their
applications: Radio carbon-dating.
Unit 20: Purification and Characterisation of
Purification (crystallization, sublimation,
distillation, differential extraction,
Qualitative analysis, detection of nitrogen, sulphur,
phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis- estimation of carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus
( basic principles only)
Determination of molecular mass-Silver salt
method, cholroplatinate salt method
Calculation of empirical formula and molecular
Numerical problems in organic quantitative
analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
Unit 21 : Some Basic Principles
Classification of Organic Compounds.
Tetravalency of Carbon, Homologous series.
Functional groups- - C=C-,-C C-,and groups
containing halogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.
General introduction to naming organic
compounds-Common names and IUPAC
nomenclature of alphatic, aromatic and Cyclic
Compounds. Illustration with examples of
Compounds having not more than three same of
different functional groups/ atoms. Isomerism-
Structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and
optical). Chirality-Isomerism in Compounds having
one and two chiral Centres. Enantiomers,
diastereoisomers, recemic forms, recemisation &
Covalent bond fission-Homolytic and Heterolytic:
free radicals carbocations and carbanions. Stability
of Carbocations and free-radicals. Electrophiles and
Electron displacement in a covalent bond-inductive
effect, electromeric effect, resonance Common
types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition,
elimination and rearrangement reactions.
Illustration with examples.
Unit:- 22 Hydrocarbons
Classification. Sources of hydrocarbons:
Alkanes- General methods of preparation (from
unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkylhalides, aldehydes,
ketones and carburoxylic acids). Physical properties
and reactions (Substitution), Oxidation and
miscellaneous). Conformations of alkanes(ethane,
popane butane) and cyclohexane, sawhorse and
Newman projections)-mechanism of halogaration
Alkanes and Alkynes- General methods of
preparation physical peorperties, Chemical
reactions-Mechanism of electrophilic addition
reactions in alkenes-Markowni Koff’s Rule,
peroxide effect. Acidic character of alkynes.
Polymerisation of alkenes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons- Benzene and its
homologues, Isomerism, Chemical reactions of
benzene. Structure of benzene, resonance.
Directive influence of substituents.
Petroleum – Hydro Carbons from Petroleum,
Cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-Octane
number, gasoline additives.
Unit 23:- Organic Compounds Containing
( Haloakanes and Haloarenes)
Methods of preparation, physical properties and
reactions. Preparation, properties and uses of
Chloroform and lodoform.
Unit 24:- Organic Compounds Containing
General methods of preparation, correlation of
physical properties with their structures, chemical
properties and uses of Alchols, polyhydric
alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic
acids and their derivatives, Phenol, Benzaldehyde
and Benzoic acid -their important methods of
preparation and reactions. Acidity of carboxylic
acids and phenol effect of substituents on the
acidity of carboxylic acids.
Unit 25 :- Organic Compounds Containing
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and
Nomenclature and classification of amines,
cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and their
methods of preparation; correlation of their
physical properties with structure, chemical
reactions and uses- Basicity of amines.
Unit 26:- Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification on Polymers, natural and synthetic
polymers ( with stress on their general methods of
preparation) and important uses of the following.
Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene,
Unit 27 :- Bio Molecules and Biological
The Cell and Energy Cycle
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides,
Amino acids and Peptides- Structure and
Proteins and Enzymes-Structure of Proteins,
Role of enzymes.
Nucleic Acids-DNA and RNA
Biological functions of Nucleic acids-Protein
synthesis and replication.
Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Unit 28:- Chemistry In Action
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines ( antipyretic,
analgesic, antibiotics & tranquilisers),
( Structural formulae non-evaluative)
Unit 29 :- Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air
pollution; major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain,
Ozone and its reactions causing ozone layer
depletion, effects of the depletion of ozone layer,
industrial air pollution.
Unit 1:- Sets, Relations and Functions
Sets and their Representations, Union, intersection
and complements of sets, and their algebraic
properties, Relations, equivalence relations,
mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings,
composition of mappings.
Unit 2 : Complex Numbers
Complex numbers in the form a+ib and their
representation in a plane. Argand diagram. Algebra
of complex numbers, Modulus and Argument (or
amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a
complex number. Cube roots of unity, triangle
Unit 3 : Matrices and Determinants
Determinants and matrices of order two and three,
properties of determinants, Evaluation of
determinants. Area of triangles using determinants;
Addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and
inverse of matrix. Test of consistency and solution
of simultaneous linear equations using determinants
Unit 4: Quadratic Equations
Quadratic equations in real and complex number
system and their solutions. Relation between roots
and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of
quadratic equations with given roots; Symmetric
functions of roots, equations reducible to quadratic
equations-application to practical problems.
Unit 5 : Permutations and Combinations
Fundamental principle of counting; Permutation as
an arrangement and combination as selection,
Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r). Simple applications.
Unit 6 : Mathematical Induction and Its
Unit 7 : Binomial Theorem and Its Applications
Binomial Theorem for a positive integral index;
general term and middle term; Binomial Theorem
for any index. Properties of Binomial Co-efficients.
Simple applications for approximations.
Unit : 8 Sequences and Series
Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions.
Insertion of Arithmetic Geometric and Harmonic
means between two given numbers. Relation
Between A.M., G.M. and H.M. Special series:
Sn,Sn2,Sn3. Arithmetico-Geometric Series,
Exponential and Logarithmic series.
Unit : 9 Differential Calculus
Polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic
and exponential functions, Inverse functions.
Graphs of simple functions. Limits, Continuity;
differentiation of the sum, difference, product and
quotient of two functions: differentiation of
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic,
exponential, composite and implicit functions;
derivatives of order upto two. Applications of
derivatives: Rate of change of quantities,
monotonic-increasing and decreasing functions,
Maxima and minima of functions of one variable,
tangents and normals, Rolle’s and Lagrange’s
Mean Value Theorems.
Unit 10 :- Integral Calculus
Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental
integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration
by substitution, by parts and partial fractions.
Integration using trigonometric identities. Integral
as limit of a sum. Properties of definite integrals.
Evaluation of definite integrals; Determining areas
of the regions bounded by simple curves.
Unit 11:- Differential Equations
Ordinary differential equations, their order and
degree. Formation of differential equations.
Solution of differential equations by the method of
separation of variables. Solution of homogeneous
and linear differential equations, and those of the
d2y = f(x)
Unit 12:- Two Dimensional Geometry
Recall of Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates
in a plane, distance formula, area of a
triangle, condition of the collinearity of three points
and section formula, centroid and in-centre of a
triangle, locus and its equation, translation of axes,slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines,
intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
The straight line and pair of straight lines
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of
line, angles between two lines, conditions for
concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from
a line Equations of internal and external bisectors
of angles between two lines, coordinates of
centroid, orthocenter and circumcentre of a
triangle, equation of family of lines passing through
the point of intersection of two lines, homogeneous
equation of second degree in x and y, angle
between pair of lines through the origin, combined
equation of the bisectors of the angles between a
pair of lines, condition for the general second
degree equation to a represent a pair of lines, point
of intersection and angle between two lines.
Circles and Family of Circles
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form
of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre,
equation of a circle in the parametric form,
equation of a circle when the end points of a
diameter are given, points of intersection of a line
and a circle with the centre at the origin and
conditions for a line to be tangent to the circle,
length of the tangent, equation of the tangent,
equation of a family of circles through the
intersection of two circles, condition for two
intersecting circles to be orthogonal.
Sections of cones, equations of conic sections
(parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard
forms, condition for
y = mx+c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
Unit 13 : Three Dimentsional Geometry
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between
two points; Section formula, direction ratios and
direction cosines, angle between two intersecting
lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between
them and its equation. Equations of a line and a
plane in different forms; intersection of a line and a
plane, coplanar lines, equation of a sphere, its
centre and radius. Diameter form of the equation of
Unit 14 : Vector Algebra
Vectors and Scalars, addition of vectors,
components of a vector in two dimensions and
three dimensional space, scalar and vector products,
scalar and vector triple product. Application of
vectors to plane geometry.
Unit 15 : Measures of Central Tendency and
Calculation of Mean, median and mode of grouped
and ungrouped data. Calculation of standard
deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped
and ungrouped data.
Unit 16 :- Probability
Probability of an event, addition and multiplication
theorems of probability and their application;
Conditional probability; Bayes’ Theorem,
probability distribution of a random variate;
Binomial and Poisson distributions and their
Unit 17 : Trigonometry
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Inverse
trigonometric functions and their properties.
Properties of triangles, including centroid, incentre,
circum-centre and orthocenter, solution of triangles.
Heights and Distances.
Unit 18: Statics
Introduction, basis concepts and basic laws of
mechanics, force, resultant of forces acting at a
point, parallelogram law of forces, resolved parts of
a force, Equilibrium of a particle under three
concurrent forces, triangle law of forces and its
converse, Lami’s theorem and its converse, Two
parallel forces, like and unlike parallel forces,
couple and its moment.
Unit 19 :- Dynamics
Speed and velocity, average speed, instantaneous
speed, acceleration and retardation, resultant of two
velocities. Motion of a particle along a line, moving
with constant acceleration. Motion under gravity.
Laws of motion, Projectile motion
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
(Only for Int. M.Sc. (Biotech.))
Unit 1 : Diversity in Living World
Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids
(Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological
parks); Systematics and Binomial system of
Introductory classification of living organisms
(Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system);
Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their
salient features (Monera, including Archaebacteria
and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae,
Animalia); Viruses; Lichens
Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups
(Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom – Salient features of
Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to
Unit 2 : Cell : The Unit of Life ; Structure
Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system
(ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes,
Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes;
Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and
Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules – Structure and function of
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and
mechanism of action.
Unit 3 : Genetics and Evolution
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of
inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete
dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of
hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
DNA –its organization and replication;
Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and
regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
Theories and evidences of evolution, including
Unit 4 : Structure and Function – Plants
Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and
tissue systems in plants;
Anatomy and function of root, stem(including
modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower
(including position and arrangement of different
whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit;
Absorption and movement of water (including
diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and
of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration
and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal
Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in
plants including deficiency disorders; Biological
nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and noncyclic
photophosphorylation; Various pathways of
carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting
Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic;
Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system;
Unit : 5 Structure and Function - Animals
Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy
and functions of different systems of earthworm,
cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology – Digestive system - organs,
digestion and absorption; Respiratory system –
organs, breathing and exchange and transport of
gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph,
double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity;
Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of
Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system,
joints, muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral
nervous systems, structure and function of neuron,
reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various
types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone
Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement
Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual
Reproduction - Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents);
Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm,
seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and
Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of
growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy,
germination and movement; Apical dominance;
Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism;
Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Unit 7 : Reproduction and Development
in Humans Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual
cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation;
Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and
parturition; Birth control and contraception.
Unit 8 : Ecology and Environment
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and
Ecological levels of organization (organism to
biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population,
Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and
Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components;
Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including
Ecological adaptations – Structural and
physiological features in plants and animals of
aquatic and desert habitats.
Biodiversity – Meaning, types and conservation
strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and
Environmental Issues – Air and Water Pollution
(sources and major pollutants); Global warming
and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise
pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of
pollution control (including an idea of
bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of
species (Hot Spots).
Unit 9 : Biology and Human Welfare
Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries;
Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens
of major communicable diseases of humans caused
by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and
helminths, and their control.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and freeliving
nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol
agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with
special reference to rust and smut of wheat,
bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato,
bean mosaic, and root - knot of vegetables.
Bioenergy – Hydrocarbon - rich plants as substitute
of fossil fuels.
Unit 10 : Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial
production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics),
sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology –
restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and
other methods, regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human
health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and
Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
In Industry – Production of expensive enzymes,
strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In
Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for
nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pestresistance
including Bt crops.